Archive for the ‘Four dimensional physics’ Category

The Einstein gravitational field equations in the context of general relativity interpret gravity as equivalent to the curvature of three dimensional space, and precisely relate that curvature to the “material content” that is present in that space.  In general relativity there is also the additional complexity of mixing of space and time in a space-time.  The precise form of the gravitational field equations is:

Ricci – constant x metric = Stress-energy

The ‘Stress-energy’ on the right side of the field equations give precise form to the material content of the universe, and the left side contains the geometric information about the curvature of space.  An intuitive picture for the general relativity approach can be understood by considering the analogy of a two dimensional surface sitting on top of a soft surface, such as foam.  If we put a metal ball on the surface, then the flat surface will dip into the soft surface, producing a curved region near it with higher curvature closer to the ball.

From the S4 theory perspective, one notes that any three dimensional smooth submanifold of a four dimensional sphere automatically produces these field equations when one computes the Ricci curvature of the immersed manifold in terms of the Ricci curvature of the ambient S4.  The ‘Stress-energy’ term is produced in terms of the extrinsic curvatures of the immersion via the second fundamental form of the submanifold.  Here the Einstein equations can be interpreted as describing a ‘structure equation’ describing how the three dimensional universe sits inside a four dimensional one.

The consequences of this reinterpretation are quite far-reaching.  Now, the Einstein equations decoupled from gravity applies at all scales throughout the three-dimensional universe.  In particular, now they describe subatomic phenomena.  Indeed, one can see from this reinterpretation why it makes sense to consider whether quarks are truly stable particles or merely describing principle curvatures of hadrons.


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Between 1900 and 2008, to take an arbitrary end-point, an enormously sophisticated set of scientific disciplines had grown with a body of literature that fills gigantic libraries filled with academic journals.  The entire structure of the modern sciences is based on the fundamental assumption of three macroscopic spatial dimensions with a minor set of exceptions.  But in fact, and according to the strictest of criteria available to the philosophy of science, the conclusion that the universe has four macroscopic dimensions invalidates, in a strict sense, this entire body of scientific work.  Thus, although in the twentieth century the possibility of four macroscopic dimensions have come from the sidelines a number of times, for example when Theodor Kaluza had proposed a theory capable of resolving the conflict between gravitation and electromagnetism 1917, or even after crystals with rotational symmetries in the set 5, 8, 10, 12 were found in 1984 generating a debate about a paradigm shift, it has been impossible to restructure the enterprise of science to a four dimensional paradigm.

I have proposed and partially justified the S4 model of the universe but in order to put together a coherent account which can be considered to have met the rigors of the scientific standard, we obviously need to do a great deal more work.  Since from the beginning in the summer of 2008 I had decided to pursue this work not under the auspices of any nation or institution, so that it can be fully free of any sort of institutional or corporate or national ‘ownership’, and so that from inception the new science ‘belongs’ to 6.7 billion of the human race, I had made tremendous efforts to be independent of institutions.

I have spent the last two years focused on propaganda for a planetary Republic structure, which had broken up my efforts in working on the scientific problems that need to be resolved to establish S4 theory more solidly, but I am encouraged because in this process I have learned a great deal about how non-technical people can understand the issue of a four dimensional universe.  In the end, science belongs to the collective knowledge of humanity.  If science can be said to have purpose beyond its existence ‘for its own sake’ it is to be the repository of collective knowledge about reality.  But if people don’t even understand science generally, then the knowledge, from my perspective, is quite useless and provides benefit only to the careers of a select group of people within an exclusive esoteric club.  To the extent in my lack of rigor I have avoided this problem, I feel successful in my efforts of the past two years.

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The human body is a three dimensional machine, although it has a four dimensional electromagnetic extension that is quite complex and mostly unexplored.  This machine operates by a complex set of mechanical components called proteins.  Almost all biologically interesting molecules are proteins and most have a template in the unique genetic material in the cells.  Proteins are sequences of one of 20 amino acids, joined by so-called peptide bonds that connect a Nitrogen (which exists on every amino acid) and an OH.  Long sequences of genetic DNA are translated by special tRNA molecules to produce sequences of proteins, and the sequence of this translation has been known for a long time.  But the sequence does not determine biological activity; each protein is only useful biologically when they are spatially folded in three three dimensions.  It is known well that the fold is rigid, in the sense that if proteins are unfolded by chemical methods — ‘denatured’ — then once the chemical conditions are removed, they refold quite quickly into the same conformation.

The ability to determine the three dimensional structure from the sequence information alone has been an interesting open problem in biology for a long time, and progress in this direction has been made by scientists who had exploited thermodynamic properties of proteins.  I had proposed a very different approach to this problem in 2008 based on the fact that SU(2) electromagnetism is the single force governing the universe and therefore proteins should be considered as ‘magnetic toys’ that have much more rigidity than would be predicted by the standard scientific theories.  I had produced some preliminary results showing that if we consider triples of amino acid types among a large number of proteins that are ‘joined’ in a sequence, then the angles between them can only take a discrete set of values (with noise) and not take a continuum of values as could be expected from less rigid structures.

My hypothesis has been that both the initial folding and refolding of denatured proteins is a purely electromagnetic phenomenon, and that the determination of structure is in principle a linear complexity function of the sequence.

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The first, admittedly sketchy, account of the S4 theory of physics, was presented in an email to a number of people that I sent out on July 27 2008.  Since then I have made sufficient progress to be quite certain that it is correct.  The main features of this new physical theory are that:  (a) the universe has four macroscopic spatial dimensions, (b) the shape of the universe is a sphere of fixed radius, (c) there is a unique force of nature that drives the universe, which is classical electromagnetism with SU(2) gauge group.

Since classical rather than quantum mechanics is a correct description of the laws governing nature in the S4 theory, it is worth pointing out that the ingredients for this theory was available during 1900.  Three specific events draw my attention in their powerful potential if combined to have produced S4 physics more than a century ago.  These are Fredholm’s solution of the great nineteenth century problem of the existence of a discrete set of pure tones for bounded domains in the plane, Planck’s solution to the great nineteenth century problem of an incorrect observed description of the intensity spectrum of the blackbody by the Rayleigh-Jeans law of classical physics in flat three dimensional space — which he solved by introducing the quantum of energy, and Rudolf Steiner’s attempts at a scientific theory of spirit based on a four dimensional universe based on his own metaphysical experiences.

The pure tones of the universe as a four dimensional sphere is precisely the quantum of energy.

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Despite the speculations of an open an infinite universe both by physical and metaphysical theories, there are simple ways to show that the universe must be bounded and closed.  The following lines of argument were first produced in July 2008 and I have distributed them publicly since on Facebook.

First assume known that the universe is four dimensional.

The first argument is based on Gaussian upper bounds on heat kernels on non-compact riemannian manifolds with lower bounds on the Ricci curvature.  It is a basic fact of modern cosmology that a cosmic background radiation of temperature near 2.72 kelvin permeates the three dimensional universe in all directions known to around 300 light year radius.  The fit to a Planck thermal distribution is excellent from the data collected by the COBE satellite.  In a noncompact universe with radiation spread from a center, such a distribution is impossible, for the heat kernel has a Gaussian upper bound so long as the Ricci curvature of the space has a lower bound.  Now the Einstein field equations, for example, provide a relation between the Ricci curvature of the space.  Thus the actual universe we live in cannot be non-compact.

If we knew that the Ricci curvature of the universe has a positive lower bound then the conclusion that the universe must be compact follows from Myers’ theorem.

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In order to understand what magic is, one should have a basic understanding of the description of the universe as outlined in my note (https://zulfahmed.wordpress.com/2010/12/29/how-do-we-know-the-universe-is-a-four-dimensional-sphere/) and also the material I am preparing for In Search of Atlantis (http://sites.google.com/site/insearchofatlantis/project-definition).

For simplicity I divide magic into two types, although this is not the best division, but it is convenient for explanation: physical magic and high magic or cosmic magic.  Magic that is able to manipulate the objects in the physical world directly I call physical magic.  This could include phenomena like telekinesis and levitation and other phenomena for which I have seen various sorts of videos, most of them hoaxes but I do not rule out that these phenomena are possible.  It is the second type of magic that I have familiarity with, that is, high magic, and this is quite different from physical magic.  The basic feature of high magic is that it is performed purely spiritually and its effects in the material world have a lag.  The time lag between a magical act and discernable effects in the physical world are variable.  The dominant factor in the time lag is distance from the physical world where the act is performed.  The universe is four dimensional and hence there is a ‘distance’ in a fourth dimension from the physical world where spiritual activity occurs.  Human souls are four dimensional and we are ourselves at different distances from the physical world.

These preliminaries aside, it is almost impossible for me to imagine successful high magic performed by someone whose third eye is not open.  The characteristics of a fully open third eye is that when one closes one’s eyes even while fully awake, one does not see pure darkness but the spirit surroundings.  I am told that this is not a common condition, but since I have had my third eye fully open for more than two years, I cannot speak for someone who does not have this condition — which also merges dream states with awakened states.

Now cosmic magic is performed by symbolic rituals where the surrounding physical space itself models the spiritual surroundings in four dimensions.  For example the ambient noises are simultaneously what they are — an ambulance passing by in the street next to the physical house where magic is being performed is both simply itself, an ambulance passing by, as well as having a symbolic meaning in a magical ritual.  The pencil on the desk both is itself as well as an object with symbolic meaning.  Thus the magic is performed as a symbolic act with the objects, and the meaning of all noises and other ambient physical phenomena can be interpreted from the perspective of the drama that provides the symbols.

High magic is not imagination out of control.  It is not possible for someone who has not spiritually entered a particular cosmic drama to have any real effect from a symbolic ritual thus.  Thus the real preparation for high magic is spiritual Ascension of various types.  To be able to perform high magic, one must fully accept a magical world and accept the restrictions that the drama imposes on the agent of the magic.

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This is a non-technical note but I will give some reasoning behind my claims that neither quarks nor the Higgs boson exist in reality although they certainly have established their existence in the current scientific orthodoxy deeply.  First, recall that the universe is actually four dimensional, and cannot be three dimensional.  There is no compelling evidence that it is more than four dimensional.  If it were six dimensional, for example, we would expect to observe crystals with 7 or 9 fold rotational symmetry, but since 1984 when 5 and 10 fold rotational symmetry were seen in crystals, there has not been any evidence of 7 or 9 fold symmetry observations.

In order to grasp how quarks are a misunderstanding, one must develop a little bit of mathematical intuition.  Picture the universe as a four dimensional sphere with a physical universe that sits in it like a napkin afloat on the surface of an ocean.  The analogy is accurate in two respects: the four dimensional universe is stationary while it is the physical universe that moves around in it; and the ambient four dimensional universe is filled with a sea of magnetic monopoles of two signs of charges, ‘light’ and ‘dark’.  This cosmic ocean is the spirit of the universe.

Although Einstein’s field equations had hitherto been mistaken for a description of gravity, they can be reinterpreted as the foundational equations describing the structure of three dimensional physical universe in an ambient four dimensional sphere.  The equations hold at all scales from cosmic to subatomic.  The structure equation relates the Ricci curvature of the immersed three dimensional universe in a four dimensional sphere.  In subatomic scales, stable objects in three dimensions have three principal curvature dimensions.  Quarks are measures of these three principal directions for hadrons and mesons, heavy particles.  A meson is described by a single principal direction, a pairing of a quark with an antiquark.  A hadron is more usual and will have three principal curvature directions.

Basically, in a collider, stable particles are smashed at high energies, and the traces of their disintegration are misinterpreted as actual particles.  But these are simply remnants of the principal curvature directions that composed the stable particles which took a little bit of time to disappear.  Their so-called half lives are so tiny that it is silly to even assign them a mass.

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