## THE STATIC EINSTEIN UNIVERSE IS STABLE

March 9, 2017 by zulfahmed

A dust-filled Einstein static universe is unstable by work of Eddington. But Gibbons has shown that a radiation-filled static Einstein universe is stable so long as the sound speed satisfied . The cosmic background radiation gives a radiation-filled universe. The speed of sound in radiation has been calculated and it is . Thus a static Einstein model is stable for our actual universe.

StabilityEinsteinStaticUniverseSpeedOfSoundInRadiation

There are a number of static cosmology theories such as Narliker et. al. Quasi-Steady State and Crawford’s Curvature Cosmology which shows that observational evidence supports a static universe (CrawfordObservationalEvidenceStatic. These theories have to explain the redshift-distance relationship and they usually do this by a tired light theory. The explanation I can provide is much simpler: the apparent redshift is due to simple geometric error of a spherically curved universe in which the frequency-wavelength relation must be replaced by essentially and when this correction is not made there is an apparent redshift that is not a physical feature of the actual universe. The Cosmic Background Radiation, far from being evidence of Big Bang is a feature of a steady-state static spherical universe. Quantum field theory computation of zero point energy does not have any problems explaining a small cosmological constant in a static Einstein universe.

vacuumdensityeinsteinstaticuniverse

There was no Big Bang, no singularity, no dark energy, no nonstandard gravity theory and quantum field theory extends without any problems and is tractable. On top of this, the Wheeler-deWitt equation can be solved explicitly for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes and one obtains a wavefunction of the universe with and as a Laguerre polynomials in multiplied by a Gaussian of (WheelerDeWittSphericallySymmetricSpace).

### Like this:

Like Loading...

*Related*

## Leave a Reply