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I am still struggling to fully understand quantization of the electromagnetic field in the established account as for example given by the second chapter of Sakurai’s Advanced Quantum Mechanics or a presentation such as this.  One of the basic issues seems to be a Fourier expansion of the electromagnetic potential $A_\mu$ for which the natural replacement for 4-sphere are eigenfunction or eigenform expansions.  Eigenform expansions for the Laplace operator are analyzed by representation theoretic methods on the sphere which can be represented as $SO(n+1)/SO(n)$ as done here by Ikeda and Taniguchi.  Another perhaps more useful approach is to consider a spinorial version of the Maxwell’s equations which was done in flat space here.