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## Preparation of redshift-distance dataset

The Caltech redshift data are from here, but I’ve cleaned it for use to show that the redshift is an artifact of wrong geometry of the universe.  The H-alpha line without any redshift is 656.3 nanometers corresponding to 457.11 GHz.  The S4 claim is that the cosmological redshift is the artifact of mistaking waves traveling on an S4 universe of radius 1/h in length equivalent for a wave traveling on flat 3-dimensional space.  The empirical slope of redshift-distance is 0.0003322 in RS/Mpc or 1.075 x 10^(-23) RS/meters.  If we assume that the universe is a 4-dimensional sphere of radius R, then that radius would have to be R ~3.33 x 10^14 meters in order for the theoretically predicted ‘redshift’ to match the observed empirical redshift to around 0.018 which is quite good. R also has to simultaneously explain the cosmological constant and quantization of energy, however, but this order of magnitude fulfills the triple goal.  The nonexistence of a creator God for the universe is a consequence of the fact that the new interpretation of the redshift removes support from any moment of creation of the universe.  Incidentally, an eternal universe without a moment of creation was Aristotelian orthodoxy so an eternal universe was known to Aristotle, albeit without explicit argument.  The radius of the universe is constant tied to Planck’s constant, and since this has not changed in a century, the parsimonious model is an infinite-time model.

If we set R=1/h such that h=3 x 10^(-15) 1/m, and take the frequency of H-alpha line at 656.3 nanometers which gives 457.11 GHz frequency, we can estimate a k0 by multiplying the raw frequency by $hc/2\pi$.  Then we consider the redshift/meter discrepancy by the formula $d(k) = 1/k - 1/\sqrt{k(k+3)}$ and then divide by 3.09 x 10^19 to obtain redshift/Mpc which gives us 1.095 x 10^(-23) which differs from the empirically calculated redshift/Mpc by 0.018.

 Index Redshift Distance (Mpc) 1 0.133 614 2 0.13647 563 3 0.137 646 4 0.138 586 5 0.139 660 6 0.141 576 7 0.15256 617 8 0.1543 664 9 0.1556 867 10 0.15617 566 11 0.16294 668 12 0.16306 667 13 0.165 663 14 0.16509 669 15 0.168 810 16 0.17368 746 17 0.18 769 18 0.18 840 19 0.182 740 20 0.185 788 21 0.18674 758 22 0.19 814 23 0.2 800 24 0.2072 871 25 0.212 876 26 0.213 892 27 0.216 957 28 0.216 957 29 0.218 872 30 0.235 965 31 0.24 1103 32 0.247 1181 33 0.249 1526 34 0.249 1041 35 0.25 1151 36 0.263 1084 37 0.28 1098 38 0.28 1238 39 0.285 1090 40 0.287 1260 41 0.29 1660 42 0.291 1227 43 0.29863 1166 44 0.3 942 45 0.3 1225 46 0.304 1273 47 0.308 1190 48 0.312 1265 49 0.314 1430 50 0.315 1228 51 0.32 1477 52 0.32 1505 53 0.331 1162 54 0.337 1336 55 0.3396 1035 56 0.34 1372 57 0.342 1625 58 0.346 1394 59 0.35 1131 60 0.357 1431 61 0.358 1452 62 0.359 1297 63 0.36 1551 64 0.3604 1362 65 0.362 998 66 0.369 1447 67 0.37 1504 68 0.371 1447 69 0.388 1969 70 0.3965 1079 71 0.4 1828 72 0.4 1606 73 0.407 1555 74 0.415 1598 75 0.416 1858 76 0.42 1013 77 0.423 1781 78 0.43 1584 79 0.43 2045 80 0.43 2073 81 0.4331 1358 82 0.4331 1478 83 0.44 1736 84 0.44 1810 85 0.449 1630 86 0.45 1839 87 0.45 1814 88 0.45 2263 89 0.4509 1106 90 0.4509 2034 91 0.451 1762 92 0.46 1966 93 0.46 2227 94 0.46 2289 95 0.46 2300 96 0.46 2216 97 0.46 2453 98 0.46 1591 99 0.46 1802 100 0.46 1913 101 0.461 1744 102 0.463 1789 103 0.465 2490 104 0.465 2643 105 0.468 2371 106 0.47 2436 107 0.47 2403 108 0.47 2035 109 0.47 2112 110 0.47 1933 111 0.47452 1817 112 0.47452 1902 113 0.478 2120 114 0.48 2013 115 0.49 2036 116 0.49 2202 117 0.49 2162 118 0.495 1885 119 0.49584 1799 120 0.496 1824 121 0.498 2927 122 0.5 2089 123 0.5 2365 124 0.5 2421 125 0.5 1066 126 0.5 2355 127 0.5 2365 128 0.504 2035 129 0.51 1409 130 0.512 3601 131 0.514 1986 132 0.52 2422 133 0.521 1690 134 0.521 2021 135 0.526 2214 136 0.526 2707 137 0.526 2621 138 0.528 2344 139 0.53 2125 140 0.532 2153 141 0.54 1601 142 0.54 2210 143 0.54 2369 144 0.54 2719 145 0.543 2227 146 0.548 2373 147 0.55 2028 148 0.552 2001 149 0.557 2041 150 0.568 2402 151 0.57 2281 152 0.57 2323 153 0.571 1981 154 0.572 3219 155 0.579 2364 156 0.58 2567 157 0.581 2124 158 0.581 2256 159 0.582 2395 160 0.592 2044 161 0.6 2268 162 0.604 1985 163 0.605 2252 164 0.606 2899 165 0.61 2251 166 0.613 2424 167 0.615 2301 168 0.61694 2215 169 0.62 2585 170 0.62 2492 171 0.627 2177 172 0.63 2050 173 0.633 2592 174 0.638 2300 175 0.638 2310 176 0.64 2787 177 0.64 2439 178 0.64 2507 179 0.64 2193 180 0.643 2449 181 0.65 2732 182 0.664 2459 183 0.67 2602 184 0.67 2602 185 0.679 2848 186 0.688 2409 187 0.6899 2713 188 0.6899 3222 189 0.691 2516 190 0.695 2132 191 0.695 2374 192 0.698 2729 193 0.7063 1276 194 0.7063 2001 195 0.707 2601 196 0.71 2525 197 0.711 2381 198 0.716 3528 199 0.719 2563 200 0.721 2547 201 0.73 2626 202 0.735 2392 203 0.735 2447 204 0.74 2726 205 0.741 2784 206 0.75 2673 207 0.752 2457 208 0.756 2793 209 0.772 2374 210 0.78 3248 211 0.782 4065 212 0.791 2615 213 0.799 3319 214 0.8 2772 215 0.8 3426 216 0.81 3121 217 0.81 3024 218 0.811 3405 219 0.812 3434 220 0.815 3623 221 0.817 2958 222 0.818 2798 223 0.822 2807 224 0.8274 3390 225 0.83 2556 226 0.83 2881 227 0.83 3218 228 0.83 4172 229 0.833 2798 230 0.839 2663 231 0.839 3217 232 0.84 2693 233 0.8424 2477 234 0.8424 3080 235 0.854 3341 236 0.859 3153 237 0.86 3439 238 0.868 3183 239 0.87 3525 240 0.874 3001 241 0.87463 1674 242 0.87463 2346 243 0.882 3202 244 0.885 3721 245 0.89 2021 246 0.899 2815 247 0.899 2815 248 0.905 2895 249 0.91 3722 250 0.927 4224 251 0.93 3254 252 0.93 3985 253 0.935 3071 254 0.935 3216 255 0.936 3244 256 0.949 2580 257 0.95 3206 258 0.95 3326 259 0.95 3168 260 0.954 3013 261 0.954 3673 262 0.954 3707 263 0.9578 2656 264 0.96 2705 265 0.961 3218 266 0.9662 3314 267 0.97 3400 268 0.975 3519 269 0.978 3060 270 0.983 3097 271 1.01 1448 272 1.01 4475 273 1.01 4280 274 1.02 1587 275 1.02 2301 276 1.02 3190 277 1.02 3969 278 1.05 3453 279 1.0585 2238 280 1.0585 5088 281 1.096 7057 282 1.0969 8866 283 1.1181 1353 284 1.12 4052 285 1.14 3611 286 1.141 4089 287 1.141 4339 288 1.19 2441 289 1.23 4849 290 1.23 4423 291 1.23 3088 292 1.2357 5657 293 1.254 2950 294 1.254 3239 295 1.27 3741 296 1.27 4841 297 1.29 6056 298 1.3 4470 299 1.3 4923 300 1.305 3779 301 1.305 3462 302 1.305 4313 303 1.30658 3155 304 1.32 5064 305 1.32 5502 306 1.34 4119 307 1.34 4373 308 1.39 3996 309 1.4 4343 310 1.4 4691 311 1.44 5683 312 1.47688 3177 313 1.47688 1771 314 1.489 4943 315 1.51 3486 316 1.52 3586 317 1.54948 3232 318 1.551 4048 319 1.551 4501 320 1.6004 3814 321 1.6004 2263 322 1.6187 4720 323 1.6187 7434 324 1.71 4842 325 1.98 6726 326 2.03 10105 327 2.0335 4379 328 2.0375 3688 329 2.0375 4339 330 2.14 4276 331 2.14 7488 332 2.167 7057 333 2.1713 13870 334 2.1817 2748 335 2.198 4777 336 2.296 7692 337 2.315 4729 338 2.332 4331 339 2.332 5873 340 2.346 4360 341 2.4353 4398 342 2.44 11150 343 2.5 5545 344 2.5373 1846 345 2.612 6057 346 2.658 5352 347 2.68 5372 348 2.7233 6003 349 2.821 3220 350 2.9 5533 351 3.082 4843 352 3.086 15200 353 3.091 3903 354 3.099 1918 355 3.107 9997 356 3.11 2464 357 3.198 5929 358 3.21 7010 359 3.24 13700 360 3.243 4443 361 3.331 5764 362 3.344 5703 363 3.372 6100 364 3.395 3984 365 3.418 6083 366 3.418 11040 367 3.53 8015 368 3.711 5873 369 3.793 8539 370 3.91 8412 371 4.04795 4196 372 4.27 6764 373 4.41 7125 374 6.29 10122