Every repetition of the line of argument improves the rigor, so here goes. The empirical data required to refute the Big Bang are extremely well-known data highly checked by cosmologists: the distance-redshift data used to fit the cosmological redshift and the CBR temperature distribution available from the COBE satellite collection. These data are widely available. The major issues in this refutation are mathematical and conceptual and the numerical fit to data is not difficult.

(a) Assume the universe background space is static (this is the parsimonious basic assumption) — a complete riemannian manifold, but with four macroscopic space dimensions from evidence of 5, 8, 10, 12 fold rotational symmetry observed in crystals from early 1980s which are rotational symmetries impossible in three space dimensions by the crystallographic restriction theorem. These have been called ‘quasicrystals’ but I can give you a simple parsimony based argument that it is better by parsimony to assume crystal and 4D rather than quasicrystal and 3D.

(b) Consider as first observation the uniform lower bound of the cosmic background radiation, a thermal Planck form. Now use the Li-Yau Gaussian upper bound on the heat kernel. Get a contradiction with uniform lower bound for any distribution of heat in a compact region of the universe. Keep the static universe as the assumption. Then ask the question of given static universe, can it be noncompact? Consider the possibilities: if we start with any temperature distribution in a noncompact space concentrated in a compact region in any finite time , the heat distribution will essentially spread concentration to distance away from the boundary of . Sufficiently far away, the exponential fall-off cannot produce a uniform lower bound on temperature. In a noncompact space, infinite time heat distribution would be zero temperature. We know the CBR lower bound in the range of 300 light years in every direction. The lower bound on temperature, say of 2.7 K, is essentially uniform and extrapolation everywhere is reasonable.